Friday, 26 June 2009

Green Dam discussion at IELP blog

The PC Filtering Software Issue

From USTR:

Today U.S. Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke and U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk sent a joint letter to their counterparts in China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) and Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) urging China to revoke a proposed rule (Circular 226) that would mandate that all computers produced and sold in China pre-install a widely-criticized Chinese Internet filtering program called Green Dam. This proposed measure is scheduled to take effect on July 1, 2009.

The letter points out that the proposed new rule raises fundamental questions regarding regulatory transparency and notes concerns about compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, such as notification obligations. Locke and Kirk also listed for MIIT Minister Li Yizhong and MOFCOM Minister Chen Deming numerous concerns raised by global technology companies, Chinese citizens, and the worldwide media about the stability of the software, the scope and extent of the filtering activities and its security weaknesses. All of these problems have serious implications for consumers and businesses

"China is putting companies in an untenable position by requiring them, with virtually no public notice, to pre-install software that appears to have broad-based censorship implications and network security issues," Locke said.

"Protecting children from inappropriate content is a legitimate objective, but this is an inappropriate means and is likely to have a broader scope. Mandating technically flawed Green Dam software and denying manufacturers and consumers freedom to select filtering software is an unnecessary and unjustified means to achieve that objective, and poses a serious barrier to trade," Kirk said.

Both U.S. government officials offered China an opportunity to exchange views with U.S. and Chinese government and industry officials on ways in which parental control software can be promoted in the market consistent with the goals of user choice, system reliability, freedom of expression, and the free flow of information.

The USTR press release doesn't say much about the legal theory, and the letter that is mentioned has not, as far as I know, been made public.  So what is the legal claim?  The WSJ explains it as follows:

U.S. officials argue the tight deadline for implementing the software requirement constitutes an unfair trade barrier. PC makers have expressed concerns about being able to meet the July 1 start date.

Foreign and domestic PC makers in China are required to begin shipping computers with the software on July 1, so the U.S. would have to show Chinese manufacturers had more notice or information to meet that deadline for a WTO complaint to succeed.

More from Bloomberg here


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Joe said...

So, how many computers sold in the US are produced in China? Would computers sold here to US consumers come pre-installed with Chinese software?

Julia Qin said...

There is a WTO-plus obligation of China in the Accession Protocol that may serve as a legal basis for the US complaint: China is required to "provide a reasonable period for comment to the appropriate authorities before [new] measures are implemented". The Green Dam rule was made public in early June, and the implementation date is July 1. The less-than-a-month period is probably not reasonable.

Henry Gao said...

I think there are at least two possible legal claims:
1. MFN. The software only has Windows version and doesn't have a Mac version. This means either Apple computers can be sold in China without pre-installing the software, or that Apple computers cannot be sold in China at all. Either way it's a violation of MFN;
2. Domestic content requirement: As the software is a domestically produced in China, requiring it in imported products would amount to a domestic content requirement in violation of TRIMS.

Wednesday, 24 June 2009

First insider appointed to the AB

The DSB appointed on the 19th two new AB members. One is Prof. Peter Van den Bossche, currently teaching Law at Maastricht University. When he assumes the office in December, he will be the first AB Member who has worked inside the AB Secretariat before - he was Counsellor and at one time Acting Director of the AB Secretariat from 1997 to 2001. It would be interesting to see whether his prior experience at the ABS would have any impact on his jurisprudence as an AB Member.

Tuesday, 23 June 2009

Will the US bring a complaint in the WTO?

US lodges China censorship complaint

By Richard Waters and Joseph Menn in San Francisco and Daniel Dombey in Washington and Kathrin Hille in Beijing

Published: June 21 2009 22:31 | Last updated: June 21 2009 22:31

The US has complained officially to China over its strict new internet censorship rules as tension builds over an issue causing consternation among international technology companies and Chinese internet users.

The development is a rare direct intervention by the US over internet freedom, which has steadily risen in importance as an issue between the two countries in recent years. US technology companies see it as a back-door way of keeping them out of the Chinese market.

China has ordered PC makers to load internet filtering software from a Chinese company, Green Dam, on all machines on sale from July 1. The order, officially directed at filtering pornography, could give officials far more power to block political content as well.

"We view with concern any attempt to restrict the free flow of information," said Ian Kelly, a State department spokesman.

"Efforts to filter internet content are incompatible with China's aspirations to build a modern, information-based economy and society."

The US embassy in Beijing said representatives had met officials at the ministry of industry and information technology and the ministry of commerce on Friday.

"We are concerned about Green Dam both in terms of its potential impact on trade and the serious technical issues raised by the use of the software," Mr Kelly said. "We have asked the Chinese to engage in a dialogue on how to address these concerns."

Chinese officials took action against Google last week, ordering the search company to block access to international sites.

Beijing claimed the action was a punishment for linking to pornographic material, but US internet executives say it was designed to direct public anger against a foreign service and distract attention from the Green Dam affair. Google has recently gained ground in China on local rival Baidu.

Silicon Valley began to argue for internet censorship to be treated as a trade issue three years ago after Google and Yahoo were publicly embarrassed over accommodations made with Beijing to be allowed to operate in China.

US technology companies have lobbied hard with the State and Commerce departments, and the US trade representative since the Green Dam order.

Solid Oak, a California software company, has sent "cease and desist" letters warning PC companies not to use the Green Dam software which, it says, uses code copied from its own filtering product.

Thursday, 18 June 2009

WTO Chairs Programme

The WTO has recently established a WTO Chairs Program to support WTO-related research and teaching activities in developing countries. While the deadline for the first round of call for proposals has expired on May 29th, similar opportunities might be offered in the future. Interested readers can find out more about the background of the program and application guidelines here. I'm honored to serve as a member of the Advisory Board of the programme.

Tuesday, 16 June 2009

Capitalists are not the only greedy ones

The WSJ recently reported that the DPRK asked the ROK for more payment to maintain an industrial complex that the South Koreans are operating within the territory of North Korea to help the North to develop their economy faster. If history is any guide, we should not be surprised at the behavior of the North Koreans. Incidentally, as products manufactured in Kaesong have been given preferential tariff under some of the FTAs signed by the ROK, this could be challenged as illegal under WTO Law.  Not that the North Koreans would care, but it would be interesting to watch how the North Koreans would react in such a case.

Pyongyang Raises Ire On Industrial Complex

SEOUL -- North Korea told South Korea on Thursday it wants to be paid more to keep open a joint industrial complex on its side of the inter-Korean border. The North's most recent demands came amid rising global tensions due to Pyongyang's tests of missiles and a nuclear device earlier this year. The United Nations Security Council is expected as early as Friday to call for expanded sanctions and inspections.

[Koreas photo] Bloomberg News

North Korean women working at the Kaesong Industrial Complex.

The money sought by North Korea would make the Kaesong Industrial Complex far more expensive to run and likely wipe out its economic attractiveness to the South Korean companies that have factories there.

But North Korea also said it intended to keep the complex going and would keep talking to the South, a departure from the invective it has heaped on South Korea's government for the past 15 months.

In Thursday's meeting at Kaesong, North Korea set out three demands: a one-time payment of $500 million to use its land at the complex for 50 years, housing for 15,000 workers, and a shift in the start date for annual land-use fees to 2010 from 2015.

Pyongyang also wants to raise the $75 monthly per-worker payment that South Korean manufacturers pay to $300. The two countries refer to that as a salary payment, but the money goes to the North Korean government and it is unknown how much is then paid to individual workers.

"The figures are the initial proposal," said Kim Young-tak, director-general of the complex and leader of the South Korean delegation at the meeting. "Through discussion, we can get closer." The Kaesong complex opened in 2004 and has been the key reason for the growth of trade between the two countries, which amounted to $1.82 billion last year. At present, 106 South Korean companies operate small factories in Kaesong that employ about 39,000 North Koreans.

[Productivity Problem chart]

North Korea last year began imposing restrictions on Kaesong, threatening its viability, in retaliation for South Korea's decision to link other economic assistance to the scaling back of the North's nuclear-weapons development.

South Korean officials didn't reject the North's demands and said they will meet again with North Korean officials June 19.

Mr. Kim said South Korea pushed the North for information about a South Korean worker who was arrested at the complex on March 30 and hasn't been seen since. The North's delegation said the man was "fine" but didn't elaborate. "We emphasized that the detention of our worker is a fundamental issue," Mr. Kim said.

The economic viability of the complex has never been clear. South Korea guarantees a portion of the losses that its manufacturers experience at the facility. Over the past two years, a productivity gap emerged as the growth of factories and workers in Kaesong outpaced the growth in the value of production at the facility.

Write to Evan Ramstad at and SungHa Park at

Monday, 15 June 2009

WSJ: EU and US to sue China in the WTO for export tariffs

EU, U.S. to File Suit Against China


BRUSSELS -- The European Union and the U.S. will jointly file suit against China at the World Trade Organization this month in a bid to stop the Asian giant from hoarding key minerals and to set a precedent for other big producers of raw materials, people familiar with the issue said Thursday.

For more than two years, China has been using tariffs on exports to keep important industrial ingredients like zinc, tin and silicon for use at home. At the same time, Beijing has aggressively bought up large quantities of minerals from resource-rich African countries.

Western governments say the policy gives Chinese chemical firms, steelmakers and other producers an unfair advantage. EU and U.S. trade negotiators have prepared a list of 20 materials, mainly chemicals and metals, they believe are subject to illegal export restrictions, though it is unclear how many of these will be part of the WTO complaint, a European diplomat said.

One restriction that has provoked strong objections from the EU and the U.S. is an export duty on yellow phosphorous, the diplomat said. China imposes a 95% duty on the material, which is used to make numerous industrial chemicals, far above limits on such duties that China accepted when it joined the WTO, the diplomat said.

China also places quotas on the amount of certain raw materials that can be exported, another potential violation of WTO rules, the diplomat said.

China is not the only culprit. In an old-fashioned scramble for resources, Russia, Ukraine, Argentina, South Africa and India also have slapped tariffs or imposed other forms of export restrictions on exports including wood, chemicals and iron ore.

The global economic boom that prompted the scramble for raw materials is over, but the tariffs remain, an annoyance to companies in the resource-poor developed world.

Last year, the European Commission in Brussels drafted a dramatic warning that a shortage of some minerals "threatened the competitiveness of European industry." The report pointed to a costly shortage in 2000 of tantalum, an ingredient in mobile phones, as an example of the bloc's vulnerability, and suggested "reinforcing the dialogue" with China and Russia, a veiled threat to take the case to the WTO, according to EU officials.

Chinese diplomats were "surprised only at the timing" of the news of a WTO challenge, said a Chinese trade-ministry official based in Brussels. "The Europeans have been complaining about this for nearly two years, but we thought it was coming at the end of this year," he said. The official said China has imposed export tariffs of as much as 100% on some products, but these were justified by "exceptional situations linked to our internal factors."

The bureaucratic complexities of the WTO system mean it will be at least two years before a ruling is made on the Chinese tariffs. EU and U.S. trade officials, however, say that opening the case is a warning shot to other countries considering export tariffs.

Write to John W. Miller at and Matthew Dalton at


2009-06-15 10:51:08 来源: 环球时报(北京) 跟贴 16 手机看股票


环球时报6月15日讯 继反倾销、反补贴之后,欧美又向中国挥起了新的贸易保护大棒。据美国《华尔街日报》12日报道,欧盟和美国计划本月联合向世贸组织上诉,指控中国对出口原材料征税、"囤积资源","并给其他资源出口国造成先例"。对此中国专家表示,包括美国在内的世界各国都在保护本国资源,中国这么做合情合理。


《华尔街日报》报道说,西方政府指责中国对原材料出口征税,从而使中国的化工和钢铁等企业获 得了不公平的优势。欧盟和美国为此已经准备了一张清单,有可能于本月在世贸组织框架内对中国限制大约20种工业原材料出口提起诉讼。报道说,今年一季度, 中国用于生产铝和钢等金属的原矿对欧洲的发货量下降了90%以上。文章称,不仅中国,俄罗斯、乌克兰、阿根廷、南非和印度都曾对资源出口征收高关税。

路透社的报道称,欧盟和美国将于6月22日正式要求和北京方面进行磋商,如果对话努力不奏 效,将要求世贸组织专家小组听取投诉。欧洲委员会贸易发言人卢兹?格尔纳不愿证实欧盟是否、或将如何提出诉讼。但他承认,"我们对出口限制问题,以及中国 对原材料出口的限制关注多时……所以这是个重要的问题。"路透社的消息透露,这次涉及的原材料包括黄磷、锑、焦炭、硅、钨、锡和锌等。欧洲化工部门对于中 国去年决定对黄磷出口征收120%关税的决定相当不满。黄磷是用于多种化工产品的关键材料。一名欧洲化工官员对路透社抱怨说,"这项关税等于在扼杀他们, 因为欧洲人每买一吨黄磷要比中国的制造商多花大约2500美元。"


美国媒体评论说,欧美此次联手行动"或许会给已经摩擦重 重的中美及中欧贸易关系火上浇油"。美国前助理贸易代表肖恩?斯派塞警告说,近期提交到世贸组织的案件数量可能会飙升,同时各国也会纷纷祭起形形色色的保 护主义大旗。华盛顿智囊机构全球发展中心贸易问题专家金伯利?艾略特则认为:"在贸易问题上,没有哪个国家在贸易保护方面是清白的。几乎所有国家都在不同 程度上违背G20会议上就有关不采取贸易扭曲措施所达成的共识。"

中国并未对此消息做出明确回应,但商务部网站12日发表声明,谴责国际上正在出现形形色色的 贸易保护主义措施,并称,"在国际贸易保护主义加剧的背景下,中国作为世界第三大贸易实体和第二大出口国,成为国际贸易摩擦的主要对象"。记者查阅大不列 颠百科全书的"出口征税"词条发现,这一措施最早被英国使用,用于对羊毛和皮革的出口征税。词条说,"出口征税是有效地保护本国工业的措施。比如挪威和瑞 典对林业产品出口征税,以鼓励本国采矿、木材制造和造纸业。"


"美国和欧洲的做法没有道理,"中国世贸组织研究会常务理事周世俭告诉《环球时报》记者,欧 美希望中国把资源敞开卖,卖光为止,它们好买便宜的。然而,保护资源、保护环境是天然合理的。"美国不许出口本国野生西洋参,加拿大不许出口祖母绿宝石, 日本连可再生的木材都不能出口……各国都在保护自己的资源,中国怎么就不能呢?"周世俭认为,欧美的要求违背了WTO的基本规则。他说,WTO强调的是不 能限制进口,让市场放开,而没有具体规定出口应该如何,更没有要求让资源放开卖。"如果中国企业将资源产品放开卖,那势必会干扰国际有色金属市场的秩序, 同样会有人不满,前一阵国际上频发反倾销调查就可以看出这样的恶果。中国的做法其实有利于市场调节。"


"中国现在的资源状况很紧张。"周世俭告诉记者,国土资源部曾有报告称,中国现代化所需要的 矿产资源里,2000年有45种,到2020年只能剩下6种。"中国是个发展中大国,矿产资源非常宝贵,因此国家对资源进行有效的管理非常必要。"周世俭 表示,国家的做法有利于保护环境,充分利用资源。但也有专家认为,中国更适宜通过资源税而非外贸政策来促进环保节能。 (本文来源:环球时报 )

Friday, 12 June 2009

Green Dam-Youth Escort

China Squeezes PC Makers
Beijing Is Set to Require Web Filter That Would Censor 'Harmful' Internet Sites


BEIJING -- China plans to require that all personal computers sold in the country as of July 1 be shipped with software that blocks access to certain Web sites, a move that could give government censors unprecedented control over how Chinese users access the Internet.

The government, which has told global PC makers of the requirement but has yet to announce it to the public, says the effort is aimed at protecting young people from "harmful" content. The primary target is pornography, says the main developer of the software, a company that has ties to China's security ministry and military.

China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn't respond to requests for comment.

The Chinese government has a history of censoring a broad range of Web content. The new requirement could force PC manufacturers to choose between refusing a government order in a major market or opening themselves to charges of abetting censorship.

The software needn't be preinstalled on each new PC -- it may instead be shipped on a compact disc -- giving users some choice. But if installed, foreign industry officials who have examined the software say, it could transmit personal information, cause PCs to malfunction, and make them more vulnerable to hacking. It also makes it difficult for users to tell what exactly is being blocked, officials say.

A spokeswoman for Hewlett-Packard Co., which has the largest PC market share of any U.S. vendor in China, said the company is "working with the government authorities and evaluating the best way to approach this. Obviously we will focus on delivering the best customer experience while ensuring that we meet necessary regulatory requirements."

Susan Stevenson, spokeswoman for the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, said the embassy was studying the new rule to assess its impact. "We would view any attempt to restrict the free flow of information with great concern and as incompatible with China's aspirations to build a modern, information-based economy and society," she said.

The software's Chinese name is "Green Dam-Youth Escort." The word "green" in Chinese is used to describe Web-surfing free from pornography and other illicit content. Green Dam would link PCs with a regularly updated database of banned sites and block access to those addresses, according to an official who tested the product for a government agency.

The May 19 Chinese government notice about the requirement says it is aimed at "constructing a green, healthy, and harmonious Internet environment, and preventing harmful information on the Internet from influencing and poisoning young people."

The software was developed by Jinhui Computer System Engineering Co., with input from Beijing Dazheng Human Language Technology Academy Co.

Bryan Zhang, founder of Jinhui, said Green Dam operates similarly to software designed outside China to let parents block access to Web content inappropriate for children. Some computers sold in China already come with parental-control software, but it isn't government-mandated.

Mr. Zhang said his company compiles and maintains the list of blocked sites, which he says is limited to pornography sites. He said the software would allow the blocking of other types of content, as well as the collection of private user data, but that Jinhui would have no reason to do so. He also said the software can be turned off or uninstalled.

His company plans to transmit new banned addresses to users' PCs through an Internet update system similar to that used by operating-system software and antivirus programs.

The software requirement was outlined in a notice that was issued by China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on May 19 but that hasn't yet been publicized by state media. The notice, a copy of which was seen by The Wall Street Journal, says PC makers must ship PCs to be sold in China as of July 1 with the Green Dam software "preloaded" -- pre-installed or enclosed on a CD.

The notice says PC producers will be required to report to the government how many PCs they have shipped with the software. The notice doesn't mention any punitive action for noncompliance.

Sales of PCs in China neared 40 million units last year, second only to the U.S. Chinese company Lenovo Group Ltd. had the largest market share, with 26.7% of units shipped in the first three months of 2009, while H-P had 13.7% and Dell Inc. had 8.1%, according to research firm IDC.

Manufacturers have more than just sales in China to consider when the government asks them to do something: Major PC companies also have investments in factories and research facilities in China.

Dell declined to comment on the software. Lenovo said, "We review all legislation relating to our business," and didn't comment further.

Foreign industry officials say companies have been given little time to properly test Green Dam. "The lack of transparency, the shortness of time for implementation, and the incredible scope of the requirement that is not matched anywhere around the world present tremendous challenges to the industry," said an industry official who has discussed the plans with several major PC makers.

China already operates an extensive Internet filtering system, commonly called the Great Firewall, which blocks access to a range of content, from pornography to politically sensitive sites. Such sites have included those promoting Tibetan independence and the spiritual group Falun Gong; in specific circumstances the government has blocked access to foreign media sites.

But that system blocks content at the network level, and many users circumvent it. The new method could give the government a way to tighten its control, say foreign industry officials who have examined the software.

Having one universal application that opens a link into every computer could also make those computers more vulnerable to cyber attacks. Mr. Zhang said that the software is no riskier than other programs that are updated periodically through the Internet.

Moreover, Green Dam, which is designed to work with Microsoft Corp.'s Windows operating system, could also conflict with other applications, causing glitches or even system crashes, industry officials said.

Wu Weiwei, an official from the government's China Software Testing Center who oversaw testing of the software, said extensive tests of the software have shown no problems.

U.S. Internet companies have for years grappled with demands from the Chinese government to censor content or share potentially private data with police.

Several of the biggest -- including Google Inc., Yahoo Inc. and Microsoft -- joined together last October to announce a set of guidelines for how they would comply with censorship requests from countries such as China, including a promise to be transparent about the requests they receive. But the effort, known as the Global Network Initiative, was criticized by some civil-liberties groups as being short on specifics and not doing enough to fight censorship laws. No computer hardware makers are members of the group.

A Yahoo spokeswoman said that the company would "continue to analyze international developments that may impact our industry." "We strongly support the free flow of information and the right to freedom of expression," she said.

Jinhui's Web site said it has a long-term "strategic cooperative partnership" with a research institute of the Ministry of Public Security on image-recognition technology, as well as long-term "technical cooperation" with the People's Liberation Army's Information Engineering University.

Mr. Zhang said Jinhui has only worked with the Ministry of Public Security on issues concerning pornography.

The Web site of Dazheng, the other software company involved in developing Green Dam, says the company works with the Armored Engineering Institute of the People's Liberation Army, and that it helped the PLA in 2005 produce a system to intercept "confidential" documents.

Wang Jingcheng, deputy general manager of Dazheng, said the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has "strict regulations and forbids all software companies from collecting any personal information." He added that the software will block content "according to the law."
—Kersten Zhang, Justin Scheck and Nick Wingfield contributed to this article.

Write to Loretta Chao at



21世纪经济报道记者 郭建龙


5 月19日,工信部下发了《关于计算机预装绿色上网过滤软件的通知》[工信部软(2009)226号,下称226号文]。226号文规定:从今年7月1日开始,在我国境内生产销售的计算机出厂时应预装“绿坝”软件;进口计算机在国内销售前应预装“绿坝”软件;“绿坝”软件应预装在计算机硬盘或随机光盘内,且在恢复分区和恢复光盘中作为备份文件。226号文称,“绿坝”软件具备拦截色情内容、过滤不良网站、控制上网时间、查看上网记录等功能。为在计算机中安装 “绿坝”软件,工信部为此支付了人民币4170万元。






6 月10日,记者拨通了大正公司的电话,该公司表示,目前的采访统一由工信部安排,大正公司只提供技术支持与服务。记者又拨通了金惠公司某高层的手机,该人士表示,目前两家公司在工信部的牵头下成立了专门的工作组,该工作组的官方网站是一个叫绿航网的网站。“该网站主要由大正方面负责维护,而金惠公司主要负责产品开发和技术维护工作。”



2008 年1月14日,原信产部下发《关于征集绿色上网过滤软件的紧急通知》,在全国范围内征召上网过滤软件,并于2008年1月21日发出绿色上网过滤软件产品一年使用权及相关服务采购竞争性谈判邀请函。记者在金惠公司网站上找到了金惠公司的谈判响应书,在金惠公司的报价表上,软件使用费总价1200万元,技术服务费共17项1500万元,其他费用(第三方监测费用)150万元,共计2850万元。

根据该响应书,金惠公司计划在 2008 年 12 月前投入 2600 万元将营销中心从郑州全部迁往北京,在上海建立面向美国、日本和韩国等国家的产品出口中心,并将部分技术研发力量配置到与公安部第一研究所合作的实验室中。

2008 年5月14日,工信部发出公告,郑州金惠计算机系统工程有限公司、北京大正语言知识处理科技有限公司的产品“金惠堵截黄色图像及不良信息专家系统”和“花季护航上网管理软件”中签。成交金额4170万元,其中郑州金惠计算机系统工程有限公司成交2180万元,北京大正语言知识处理科技有限公司成交1990 万元。



针对工信部7月1日安装该软件的要求。浪潮集团新发言人左佰臣的电话表示只要工信部有要求,就会执行。“对浪潮的影响不会很大,因为浪潮不做个人消费PC。 ”他认为预装软件都已经实现了工业化生产,并不是什么难事,不会提高PC制造成本。七喜内部人士告诉记者,七喜买了“绿坝”软件两年使用权限,并对七喜电脑完成了预装。




这同时意味着在每台计算机上开了一个后门,这个后门可以被好人使用,也可以被坏人打开,一旦被黑客利用,则后患无穷。上述人士分析:“如果该公司的网站能够被黑客攻破,那么其产品也可能会被黑客攻破,这意味着安装此类产品的计算机很可能变成肉鸡,甚至用户的电子邮件、信用卡操作、击键记录等都可能存在风险。 ”他说:公司此前也做过类似的产品,但后来放弃了。








根据该软件官方网站绿航网的数据,至今年3月底,国内已有约95家网站提供“绿坝”软件免费下载,下载次数共计约326.68万次;约2279所校园装备“ 绿坝”软件,总装机数达约51.83万台;约6957家网站完成“绿坝”软件安装工作,总装机数达约116.35万台。此外,联想、浪潮、七喜等厂商已签订软件预装协议,已装机数高达约5270万套。


  为构建绿色、健康、和谐的网络环境,避免互联网不良信息对青少年的影响和毒害,工业和信息化部、中央文明办、财政部按《政府采购法》有关要求,使用中 央财政资金买断“绿坝-花季护航”绿色上网过滤软件(以下简称“‘绿坝-花季护航’软件”)产品一年使用权及相关服务,供全社会免费使用。经综合测试和试 点应用,该软件产品可有效过滤互联网不良文字和图像内容,已具备计算机厂商预装条件。


2009-06-12 21:37:06 来源: 法制晚报(北京) 跟贴 0 手机看新闻

工信部日前下文要求国内新售电脑必须预装一款名为 “绿坝-花季护航”的绿色上网软件。当媒体和公众还在为这款软件强制安装后能否卸载、是保护消费者还是监控用户而争论不休的时候,一些电脑爱好者坐不住了,他们开始摩拳擦掌地检验这个“绿坝”到底有多“牛”。




其二,如果“绿坝”真的很容易“溃堤”,还值得相关部门强力推广吗?因此投入的财政资金,最后会不会打了水漂? (本文来源:法制晚报 作者:乔志峰)

Wednesday, 10 June 2009

China's first CVD investigation


2009-06-05 10:33  文章来源:商务部新闻办公室
文章类型:原创  内容分类:新闻

  6月1日,商务部发布40号公告对原产美国和俄罗斯的 进口取向电工钢(硅钢)进行反倾销调查;发布41号公告对原产于美国进口取向电工钢进行反补贴调查。这是中国首次对进口产品进行反补贴调查,也是首次对来 自一个国家的进口产品同时进行反倾销和反补贴调查(“双反”调查)。日前,商务部公平贸易局负责人就此接受了记者的采访。

  这位负责人指出,国内产业提出对进口产品进行反补贴调查,表明中国企业运用WTO规则维护自身权益的意识日渐成熟,除了运用反倾销措施外,开 始关注进口产品因受补贴而产生的不公平竞争。同时,开启反补贴调查也丰富了中国贸易救济调查实践。目前,对于WTO规则所允许的反倾销、反补贴和保障措 施,中国都有立法和实践。当然,中国政府对贸易救济调查一贯采取十分慎重的态度,反倾销等措施仅是对不公平贸易行为的纠正,并不会影响正常贸易的进行。

  该负责人介绍,今年4月29日,商务部公平贸易局收到了武钢和宝钢集团代表国内电工钢产业递交的申请书,要求对自美国进口的取向电工钢“双反 ”调查以及对俄罗斯进口的取向电工钢进行反倾销调查。公平局对该申请书依照相关法规进行了认真的审核,经审查掌握的初步证据显示,两家企业在2006年、 2007年、2008年、2009年1月至2月取向电工钢产量之和占同期中国大陆同类产品总产量的100%,具备申请调查所要求的产业代表性。5月15日 商务部通知美国驻中国大使馆,根据WTO《补贴与反补贴措施协定》的规定向其发出进行政府磋商的邀请; 5月27日,商务部代表中国政府,美国贸易谈判代表办公室和美国商务部代表美国政府,进行了立案前磋商。商务部对于美方提出的有关补贴项目的关注给予了认 真考虑,最终确定对国内产业申请书中所指控的总计27个补贴项目中的22个进行调查,对5个补贴项目不予调查。

  就此次调查的补贴项目,该负责人介绍到,补贴项目中的有些内容为公众所熟知,比如“购买美国货法案”项下的补贴,还比如被WTO判定违反规则 的“持续性倾销及补贴补偿法案”,即“伯德法案”项下的补贴;也涉及到了美国社会保险的有关项目,如养老保险担保项下的补贴;还有一些专门针对钢铁业的计 划、和特别环保豁免等。对一些地方性补贴项目,即对美国有关州的补贴项目也将进行调查。对于这些指控补贴项目,只有经过调查才能最终确定美国相关企业是否 获得利益,相关补贴项目是否具有WTO规则所规定的专向性。因此,商务部希望相关利害关系方,包括美国政府和美国企业,通过积极应诉并充分配合中国调查机 关的调查来维护自身的权益。商务部将在调查中充分尊重各利害关系方的权利,并确保调查过程的公开、公平和透明,以期得出客观、公正的结论。

MOFCOM getting tough on irregularities in labor export markets


2009-06-09 16:51  文章来源:商务部合作司
文章类型:原创  内容分类:政策


Monday, 8 June 2009

The Numbers Game

Need a Real Sponsor here

IEA Casts Doubt on China’s Data

The question of whether China is presenting a too rosy growth picture came from an interesting corner: the International Energy Agency.

The IEA said Beijing’s official 6.1% on-year growth in first-quarter gross domestic product didn’t tally with a 3.5% drop in China’s oil demand in the quarter and also cited “inordinately weak” electricity demand.

“Admittedly, pinpointing China’s oil demand with accuracy is an exercise fraught with difficulties, given the lack of data and the underlying assumptions analysts must make regarding stocks and refinery output from independent producers,” the IEA said in its latest report on the global oil market (available here, subscription required).

“Still, one would have expected stronger, positive oil demand growth commensurate with the reported economic resilience, unless income elasticities had drastically changed.”

The IEA floated another possibility: Real GDP data aren’t accurate and shouldn’t be taken at face value.

It cited analysis by one research firm: London-based economic consultancy Lombard Street Research, often found on the lower end of estimates of China growth. On China’s first quarter, Lombard Street said growth was “probably slightly negative or nil at best.” That’s a minority view, as many economists think that while growth in the fourth quarter of last year was likely overstated by official GDP figures, that’s less true of the improving first quarter.

And extrapolating from a volume indicator like oil or electricity use to GDP — a value-added measure — is not a straightforward process. Many economists think the disconnect between China’s measures of energy consumption and GDP reflects a sharper slowdown in energy-intensive sectors than in the overall economy.

“This analysis … is of course one set of opinions among many,” the IEA said. “However, its conclusions regarding China’s real 1Q09 GDP growth seem more consistent with oil demand estimates.” The agency said it was sticking with its forecast of a 0.9% decline in 2009 in China’s apparent oil demand.

China’s statisticians have defended the accuracy of their work.

–David Winning

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国家统计局综合司 2009-05-25 09:43:46